For many anesthesiologists, discussions with patients and colleagues about cannabis have been occurring more often. Cannabis, also called marijuana, contains various components that activate the endocannabinoid system, including delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD), both of which have been topics of national discourse.1,2  The need for better evidence regarding the effects of cannabis and its various cannabinoid and noncannabinoid components that impact the health of patients is especially heightened as cannabis is increasingly viewed by patients as an alternative to opioids. One question relevant to the anesthesiology community is whether patients who have a diagnosis of active cannabis use disorder have an increased risk of negative outcomes after surgery. Here, it is important to differentiate use of cannabis from cannabis use disorder, in which patients have problems from cannabis use that lead to “significant impairment...

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