Obesity is a pathologic increase in the body adipose tissue that is associated with an augmented incidence of chronic health-threatening conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In 2015, 12% of the world adult population and 5% of the world pediatric population were obese, with the highest prevalence among women aged 60 to 64 yr living in high-income countries. Since 1980, the incidence of obesity has globally increased across all age classes and sociodemographic levels. The higher rates of this increase were observed among children. In the United States, one of the countries most affected by the “obesity pandemic,” the prevalence is approaching 40% among adults, 20% among adolescents, and 14% among children, and it is higher in women, Hispanic whites, and black Americans.

In the adult, obesity is classically defined as...

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