Cardiac output (CO) is a main determinant of oxygen delivery. Maintenance of adequate CO is thus a mainstay of hemodynamic management in perioperative and intensive care medicine. Methods to measure CO can be classified as invasive, minimally invasive, or noninvasive methods (fig. 1). While invasive indicator dilution methods (i.e., pulmonary artery and transpulmonary thermodilution) remain the clinical reference methods for CO measurement, numerous minimally invasive and noninvasive methods to estimate CO have been proposed in recent years.1,3–5  Understanding the principles of these systems and their limitations is crucial to be able to select the appropriate method for the individual patient and clinical setting. In this article, we describe minimally invasive and noninvasive CO monitoring technologies available in clinical practice and we discuss how to evaluate these systems...

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