We thank the authors1,2  of these letters to the editor for their thoughtful reading of our editorial. The diversity of the opinions expressed in these responses reflects the diversity of issues enmeshed in the current crisis.

Chakrabortty and Gupta challenge readers to recognize that the complexities of opioid use are more than matched by the complexities of suffering. They suggest that efforts to contain over-prescription of opioids to treat pain may inadvertently result in pain and suffering that can, in turn, lead to suicidal ideations and worse. To use opioids compassionately with the goal of reducing suffering while not placing patients and community members at undue risk is a major challenge. We believe anesthesiologists can help patients during the highly stressful and painful intraoperative and immediate postoperative period by carefully using these...

You do not currently have access to this content.