One of the missions of the Food and Drug Administration (Silver Spring, Maryland) is to protect the public health by assuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human drugs. According to Food and Drug Administration guidance, new drugs can be approved as long as they show efficacy compared to placebo, even if there are already drugs approved and available that have been deemed effective. Exparel (Pacira Biosciences, Inc., USA), an extended release liposomal formulation of bupivacaine, first approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2011 for surgical site infiltration, was approved under these circumstances. In this issue, two articles review 10 yr of research on the clinical effectiveness of liposomal bupivacaine. Ilfeld et al. provide an extensive narrative review of published randomized controlled trials, and Hussain et al. conducted a...

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