Clinicians have sought methods to monitor tissue oxygenation for over a century. These efforts culminated in the development of the ear oximeter in the 1940s and then pulse oximetry in the 1970s. The observation that tissue including bone is transparent to light in the near-infrared spectrum (700 to 1,300 nm) led to the introduction of cerebral oximetry.2,3  A growing understanding of the importance of neurologic complications for patient outcomes after cardiac surgery has provided a strong impetus for implementing cerebral oximetry into clinical practice, albeit adoption in the United States remains low.4–7  Other applications continue to evolve, including monitoring during noncardiac surgery such as shoulder surgery in the beach chair position or during one-lung ventilation for thoracic surgery.8,9  The purpose of this clinically focused review is to summarize the...

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