The Instructions to Authors of Anesthesiology clearly state that scientific articles without peer review are not to be included as references. Despite this stipulation, we noticed there are three articles in Anesthesiology2–4  citing articles from medRxiv. medRxiv is a preprint server for health sciences. The articles deposited in medRxiv have not undergone peer review. The medRxiv official website cautions readers that preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review. They should not be relied on to guide clinical practice or health-related behavior and should not be reported in news media as established information.

We found five articles in your journal4,6–9  with references from another preprint server, bioRxiv. The disadvantage of accepting non–peer-reviewed preprints from preprint servers as references might lead to:

Whether Anesthesiology allows...

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