Healthcare-associated infections are common in hospitalized patients, impacting 7 to 10% of patients globally. In lower- and middle-income countries, the risk is 15%, with surgical site infection being most common. In higher-income countries, healthcare-associated infections affect up to 30% of intensive care unit (ICU) patients who are vulnerable because of underlying comorbidities and immunosuppression and the presence of invasive catheters and devices. In this review, we summarize current evidence-based strategies for healthcare-associated infection prevention in ICU patients. Healthcare-associated infection risk factors, treatment, and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevention are not discussed in this review.

The 2019 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthcare-associated infection progress report, which includes data from many but not all acute care hospitals in the United States, reported 29,669 central line–associated bloodstream infections, 26,376 catheter-associated urinary tract infections, and 4,423 ventilator-associated events in patients from more than 3,600 hospitals.3...

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