Current estimates suggest that over 1 billion humans suffer from anemia worldwide. Anemia remains one of the top causes of years lived with disability globally. Anemia is also prevalent in patients with critical illness and those presenting for surgical care. The strong association between anemia and perioperative morbidity and mortality has captured the attention of anesthesiologists.3–14  Understanding this risk has energized clinician and investigators to pursue the goal of defining the pathophysiology of this heterogeneous and complex disorder and formulating effective treatment strategies.15  By understanding the potential mechanism(s) of injury associated with anemia, we may enhance implementation of available effective strategies to treat anemia and also develop novel treatment strategies. These approaches may reduce the incidence of adverse outcomes associated with anemia.

The World Health Organization (Geneva, Switzerland) has defined anemia as a...

You do not currently have access to this content.