With interest, we read the article by Colquhoun et al. on the association between a tidal volume regimen during one-lung ventilation and postoperative pulmonary complications. In the article’s title and Discussion section, the authors claim that the tidal volume regimen was not associated with the studied outcome, and in the Results section, they explicitly report a “lack of association.”

While it is not our intention to criticize or debase this otherwise excellent study, we would like to address a fundamental statistical misconception that we regularly observe in medical literature: the misinterpretation of nonsignificant hypothesis test results as evidence for the lack of a difference, effect, or association.

A nonsignificant result of a superiority test merely means that there is insufficient evidence to reject the null hypothesis and claim a difference, effect, or association. Importantly, however, it does...

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