Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital syndrome involving blood vessels and bony or soft tissue hypertrophy. Vascular malformations may present in any organ or tissue. General anesthesia is generally preferred for surgery, owing to the risks of vascular malformation and coexisting coagulopathy. A 26-yr-old parturient with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome was scheduled for Cesarean delivery. She had no history of hemoptysis. We performed awake preoperative bronchoscopic evaluation of the airway, because massive bleeding in the trachea was reported in a patient with Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Varicose veins on anterior wall of the upper trachea, dilated blood vessels, and abrasion of the mucosa were observed (panels A and B). Cesarean delivery was performed under spinal anesthesia; however, general anesthesia was performed owing to postoperative hemorrhage. Flexible fiberoptic intubation was performed, and the cuff was carefully placed distal to the...

You do not currently have access to this content.