Anesthesia is associated with the development of atelectasis, which may affect lung ventilation. These changes persist into the postoperative period and are associated with postoperative respiratory complications. Electrical impedance tomography has been used in the operating room to monitor changes in aeration and to guide intraoperative ventilatory settings in a strategy to prevent atelectasis. The end-expiratory lung impedance tracks changes in lung aeration, and its correlation with functional residual capacity has been previously validated.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the lung aeration estimated by electrical impedance tomography as the end-expiratory lung impedance after anesthesia induction in pediatric patients. This was a prospective, single-center, observational study including healthy children younger than 5 yr who underwent nonthoracic surgery. Monitoring was performed continuously before and throughout the surgical period. Data analysis was divided into five periods: induction-spontaneous breathing, ventilation-5 min (initial 5 min of...

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