After the discoveries of ionizing radiation (by von Röntgen and Becquerel) and radium and thorium by Pierre and Marie Curie in France, there was real enthusiasm for these radioactive elements and the general public alike. Radium was considered beneficial at low dose. Many applications were proposed for healthy and hygienic purposes: radium and thorium were introduced in face cream against wrinkles (were faces fluorescent in the night?), in lipstick (for hot lips?), in drugs for bronchitis. Manufacturers even produced a domestic fountain providing radioactive water to drink and a radium-containing coffeepot with great commercial success.