In 1901, in order to limit restlessness during anesthesia induction, the French dentist Maxime Drossner invented an apparatus which combined a “classical” nitrous oxide anesthesia apparatus (S.S. White Dental Company, Philadelphia, PA, or Dental Manufacturing, London, United Kingdom) and a phonograph linked to the ears of the anesthetized patient. The illustration comes from the patent of the French National Institute for Industrial Property (INPI). Since the induction occurred beside a window to allow evacuation of nitrous oxide, the musical surroundings enabled isolation of the patient from the noises of the street which were thought to disturb his/her dreams and promote agitation. Thus, Maxime Drossner was the first to use “musicotherapy” in anesthesia, following the old principle of music as therapy proposed by the famous Ambroise Paré (1510–1590).

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