Emerging lines of evidence suggest that neuroinflammation in the brain with anesthesia and surgery is associated with cognitive effects during development and with postoperative cognitive dysfunction and might be targeted to prevent these events:

  • Zuo: Postoperative Cognitive Effects in Newborns: The Role of Inflammatory Processes, p. 481

  • Sanders and Avidan: Postoperative Cognitive Trajectories in Adults: The Role of Inflammatory Processes, p. 484

  • Shen et al .: Selective Anesthesia-induced Neuroinflammation in Developing Mouse Brain and Cognitive Impairment, p. 502

  • Zheng et al .: Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Pregnant Mice Induces Neurotoxicity in Fetal and Offspring Mice, p. 516

  • Degos et al .: Depletion of Bone Marrow–derived Macrophages Perturbs the Innate Immune Response to Surgery and Reduces Postoperative Memory Dysfunction, p. 527