Postoperative cognitive dysfunction is common. It remains uncertain if there are long-term adverse cognitive effects that are attributable to surgery combined with anesthesia. In this issue of Anesthesiology, Dokkedal et al. examined the association between exposure to surgery and level of cognitive function in a sample of 8,503 middle-aged and elderly twins. In an accompanying Editorial View, Avidan and Evers argue based on the existing evidence that persistent postoperative dysfunction is largely a fallacy. Their arguments are highlighted in this month’s infographic.

  • Dokkedal et al.: Cognitive Functioning after Surgery in Middle-aged and Elderly Danish Twins, p. 312

  • Avidan and Evers: The Fallacy of Persistent Postoperative Cognitive Decline, p. 255

  • Infographics in Anesthesiology: Persistent Postoperative Cognitive Decline? A Pyramid of Evidence, p. 21A