The art mousike (Greek for “pertaining to the Muses”) naturally embraced music itself, and “well-pleasing” Euterpe (right) was the Muse of Music. On this Italian card advertising a company cofounded by chloroform pioneer Justus von Liebig (1803 to 1873), Euterpe is depicted playing the double-reeded, double-piped aulos. Veiled next to her stands Polyhymnia (“many hymned”), the Muse of sacred forms of song, poetry, and dance. Her veil(s) preserved modesty, piety, and mystery. By including veils, scarves, or ribbons, Polyhymnia’s art is arguably practiced today in both religious and secular circles, in modern sacred dance and Olympic rhythmic gymnastics, respectively. (Copyright © the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology.)

The art mousike (Greek for “pertaining to the Muses”) naturally embraced music itself, and “well-pleasing” Euterpe (right) was the Muse of Music. On this Italian card advertising a company cofounded by chloroform pioneer Justus von Liebig (1803 to 1873), Euterpe is depicted playing the double-reeded, double-piped aulos. Veiled next to her stands Polyhymnia (“many hymned”), the Muse of sacred forms of song, poetry, and dance. Her veil(s) preserved modesty, piety, and mystery. By including veils, scarves, or ribbons, Polyhymnia’s art is arguably practiced today in both religious and secular circles, in modern sacred dance and Olympic rhythmic gymnastics, respectively. (Copyright © the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology.)

George S. Bause, M.D., M.P.H., Honorary Curator, ASA’s Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, Schaumburg, Illinois, and Clinical Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. UJYC@aol.com.