The effects of surgery and anesthesia on the developing brain have been the source of ongoing controversy. In this issue of Anesthesiology, Jevtovic-Todorovic reviews the evidence regarding the effects of exposing the developing brain in animals to general anesthetics, and Davidson and Sun review the human evidence. Three accompanying Editorial Views by Kharasch, Culley and Avram, and Warner et al. place these new reviews into perspective for the practicing anesthesiologist. Illustration by Annemarie Johnson, Vivo Visuals.

  • Jevtovic-Todorovic: Exposure of Developing Brain to General Anesthesia: What Is the Animal Evidence? p. 832

  • Davidson and Sun: Clinical Evidence for Any Effect of Anesthesia on the Developing Brain, p. 840

  • Kharasch: The Challenges of Translation, p. 693

  • Culley and Avram: Young Brain and Anesthesia: Refusal of Anesthesia Is Not an Option! p. 697

  • Warner et al.: Anesthesia and Neurodevelopment in Children: Perhaps the End of the Beginning, p. 700