Barred from university schooling as a Dissenter (from the Church of England), Joseph Priestley is depicted preaching from a barrel of religious “fanaticism” in this satirical image published in 1790 by London’s William Dent. When questioned (right) as to whether there is “such a thing as a Devil,” Priestley responds with an emphatic “No” as a “Word of Comfort” just before the Devil (left) is about to pitchfork the Separatist clergyman. Although he said “No” to prevailing religious views, Priestley retorted “Yes” to discovering ten gases, including oxygen and nitrous oxide. (Copyright © the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology.)

Barred from university schooling as a Dissenter (from the Church of England), Joseph Priestley is depicted preaching from a barrel of religious “fanaticism” in this satirical image published in 1790 by London’s William Dent. When questioned (right) as to whether there is “such a thing as a Devil,” Priestley responds with an emphatic “No” as a “Word of Comfort” just before the Devil (left) is about to pitchfork the Separatist clergyman. Although he said “No” to prevailing religious views, Priestley retorted “Yes” to discovering ten gases, including oxygen and nitrous oxide. (Copyright © the American Society of Anesthesiologists’ Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology.)

George S. Bause, M.D., M.P.H., Honorary Curator and Laureate of the History of Anesthesia, Wood Library-Museum of Anesthesiology, Schaumburg, Illinois, and Clinical Associate Professor, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. UJYC@aol.com.