It remains unclear how to quantitatively compare the pharmacodynamics of propofol and sevoflurane in the absence or presence of opioids during anesthesia. In this issue of Anesthesiology, Kuizenga et al. assessed the population pharmacodynamics of propofol and sevoflurane with or without opioids in healthy volunteers. In an accompanying Editorial View, Sleigh puts the new findings into the context of clinical practice where anesthesiologists commonly—and effectively—use more complex combinations of volatile agent, opioid, and infusions of propofol, dexmedetomidine, lidocaine, or ketamine. Cover photo: J. P. Rathmell. Cover illustration: S. M. Jarret, M.F.A., C.M.I.

  • Kuizenga et al.: Population Pharmacodynamics of Propofol and Sevoflurane in Healthy Volunteers Using a Clinical Score and the Patient State Index: A Crossover Study, p. 1223

  • Sleigh: The Art of General Anesthesia: Juggling in a Multidimensional Space, p. 1199