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Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, A13–A18. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3fbd

Editorial Board

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, A17–A18. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3fab

This Month in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, A3. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3f63

Anesthesiology CME Program

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, A21. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3f83

Editorial

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182976204
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 4–6. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829764f3
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 7–9. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828e8974
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 10–12. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297cdda
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 13–15. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182976508
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 16–18. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182976334

Perioperative Medicine

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 19–28. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829761e3

In 500 patients with cardiac risk factors undergoing noncardiac surgery with nitrous oxide, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variant did not alter homocysteine concentration or the incidence of cardiac injury. Vitamin B12, although decreasing homocysteine concentration, did not alter the incidence of cardiac injury.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 29–35. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829764cf
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 36–42. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297ce95

Residual rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade at the reappearance of the fourth twitch in response to train-offour stimulation can be reversed within 5 min by 1.0 and 2.0 mg/kg sugammadex. A sugammadex dose of 0.5 mg/kg can reverse such residual neuromuscular blockade in less than 10 min.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 43–51. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829101de

White patients with similar body mass index undergoing general or orthopedic surgery were matched to comparable black patients within the same hospitals. After matching, blacks had induction-to-recovery room duration 7 min longer than whites (P = 0.0019), 6 min reflect cut-to-close time (P = 0.0032).

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 52–60. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828ce55d

In 106 patients randomized to receive spinal anesthesia for surgery without general anesthetics or with isoflurane or desflurane, isoflurane was associated with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of Aβ40 and desflurane with a decrease in Aβ42. This clinical work parallels observations in animals, but its relevance to cognition after surgery remains uncertain.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318295262a

The choice of potent volatile anesthetic may prolong hospitalization, increasing the cost of patient care. The hypothesis that duration of hospitalization is longer in patients anesthetized with isoflurane than in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane was tested first in a propensity-matched retrospective analysis and subsequently in a prospective alternatingintervention trial. The retrospective study, which included 2,898 triplets matched on anesthetic used, found the duration of hospitalization was shorter in patients anesthetized with sevoflurane or desflurane than in those anesthetized with isoflurane. However, the prospective trial, which included 1,584 operations, found no difference in length-of-stay between patients anesthetized with isoflurane and those anesthetized with sevoflurane. This illustrates the importance of testing the results of even a very robust retrospective analysis with an appropriately designed prospective study.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 71–80. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828ce817

Most children are vitamin D deficient after congenital heart disease surgery, secondary to borderline preoperative levels and significant intraoperative decline. Lower vitamin D levels were associated with worse clinical outcome.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 81–88. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828e894f

The effects of volatile anesthetics on synchronization between electrocorticogram recordings in sheep were analyzed. In contrast to global synchrony, local cortical synchrony increased during anesthesia, which might contribute to the loss of long-range synchrony and information integration critical to consciousness.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 89–100. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c165

Using a novel lung imaging technique that uses synchrotron radiation, the administration of positive end-expiratory pressure was shown to improve aeration in collapsed lung but not to eliminate overventilation of normal lung units in experimental lung injury.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 101–110. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182923c40

The effective lung volume participating in gas exchange was estimated at the bedside by the differential Fick method and shown to be highly correlated with the end-expiratory lung volume, suggesting its use clinically.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 111–118. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828cebfe

Skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor proteins with a mutation associated with malignant hyperthermia were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. The authors could show enhanced sensitivity and intensity of the calcium mobilization response to specific pharmacologic stimulation of the ryanodine receptor of six mutant proteins compared with the wild type.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 119–128. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828ce844

Using the acute hippocampal slice, the authors provide evidence that sevoflurane-induced preconditioning (4%, 60 min given before a 5-min period of hypoxia) attenuates the decrease in adenosine triphosphate stores, but not the changes in sodium and potassium levels. These results suggest that improved adenosine triphosphate content, but not Na+ or K+ levels, correlates with improved physiological recovery induced by sevoflurane preconditioning.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 129–141. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c18b

Acute statin treatment decreased macrophage infiltration of atherosclerotic lesions, as visualized with in vivo fluorescence-mediated tomography, in mice. The results suggested that short-term statin treatment may produce favorable effects to stabilize atherosclerotic plaques and decrease cardiovascular risk.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 142–155. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828fc7e7

In 3- and 7-day-old rats, intrathecal injection of 0.5% levobupivacaine produced temporary spinal anesthesia, but did not increase apoptosis or result in histologic or behavioral neurotoxicity.

Critical Care Medicine

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 156–165. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829083b8

In normal sheep lungs mechanically ventilated (over 16 h, 8 ml/kg, zero positive end-expiratory pressure), progressive derecruitment is associated with increased regional shunt, implying insufficient hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, and incipient inflammation.

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 166–177. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c2fc

Administration of probiotics in septic mice decreased mortality and systemic bacteremia and led to decreased apoptosis of colonic epithelium, decreased colonic epithelial proliferation, and decreased systemic and colonic cytokine expression.

Pain Medicine

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 178–190. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297630d

In this meta-analysis of data from more than 1,200 patients, systemically administered magnesium decreased postoperative pain a small, statistically significant amount; a reduction in morphine use was clearly evident. The reduction in both pain and morphine use indicates magnesium has some utility as an analgesic adjunct after surgery.

Education: Case Scenario

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828fc627

Education: Images in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 201. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828ce62e
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 202. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291022d

Education: Anesthesia Literature Review

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 203–205. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182975334

Education: Original Investigations in Education

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 206–217. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829761c8

Over a 10-yr period, 20 anesthesiologists referred to one institution after hiatus from practice underwent a simulation-based reentry program. The group was heterogeneous, and simulation aided the assessors in making recommendations.

Education: Clinical Concepts and Commentary

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 218–227. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297c18a

This commentary seeks to clarify the recommendations and highlight the debate regarding the perioperative management of hemostasis in intracerebral hemorrhage.

Education: Mind to Mind

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 228–229. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182874854
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 230. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828607a1
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 231–232. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828e158b

Correspondence

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 233–234. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297a659
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 234–236. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297cca2
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 236. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297d367
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 236–237. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297df7d
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 237–238. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297634a
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 238–239. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182977002

Reviews of Educational Material

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 240–241. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182829bb9
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 241. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828e159d

Anesthesiology Reflections from the Wood Library-Museum

Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 110. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3fd3
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 155. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e3fe7
Anesthesiology July 2013, Vol. 119, 177. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829e4001
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