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Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, A13–A18. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37c09

Editorial Board

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, A19–A20. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37bf5

This Month in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, A3. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37ba5

Anesthesiology CME Program

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, A21. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37bd7

Editorial

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 243–244. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bd9fb
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 245–247. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318297605d
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 248–249. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bdb4b
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 250–252. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829c2f3a
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 253–255. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829b3853

Perioperative Medicine

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 256–269. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bd9bc

Compared to colloid (hydroxyethyl starch 6% 130/0.4), normovolemic hemodilution with crystalloid (balanced electrolyte solution) produced greater renal hypoxia indicating the diluent may be a factor when evaluating hemodilution and acute kidney injury.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 270–283. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829083f1

This individual patient level meta-analysis indicates that increased postoperative B-type natriuretic peptide predicts mortality, cardiac mortality, mortality or nonfatal myocardial infarction, and cardiac failure at 30 days and 180 days or more after noncardiac surgery.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 284–294. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318299969c

In a secondary analysis of an observational study of 1,025 coronary artery bypass graft surgical patients, increased perioperative plasma B-type natriuretic peptide independently predicted 5-yr heart failure hospitalization and heart failure death.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 295–302. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182987af4

In an open-label parallel arm study of 100 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving low tidal volume ventilation, sending the anesthesia providers an alert with a recommended tidal volume of 6 ml/kg resulted in a significant reduction in tidal volume delivered during anesthesia compared with conventional care. Complications and major morbidity did not differ between groups.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 303–316. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829aaff4

Intraoperative high Fio2 decreases the risk of surgical site infection in surgical patients receiving prophylactic antibiotics, has a weak beneficial effect on nausea, and does not increase the risk of postoperative atelectasis.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 317–325. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182910213

In healthy rats, calabadion 1 produced a dose-dependent reversal of neuromuscular blockade from cisatracurium and rocuronium without affecting heart rate, blood pressure, or arterial blood gas tensions or pH.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 326–334. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829083d8

The results demonstrate that neuromuscular depression during train-of-four monitoring is due to a decline in nerve terminal Ca2+ currents. More profound stimulation conditions seem to be required for depletion of acetylcholine stores.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 335–344. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829417f0

Using postnatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, the authors demonstrated that xenon used at 1 minimum alveolar concentration-equivalent concentration increased apoptosis similar to sevoflurane and isoflurane at equipotent concentrations, and that this effect was abolished by preconditioning the tissue with a subtoxic concentration of isoflurane.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 345–357. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318294934d

Using a model of mechanically ventilated piglets in the absence of brain injury, the authors could show that neither 24 h of 50% inhalated xenon nor fentanyl, alone or in combination, induced apoptosis in the neonatal pig brain in normothermic or hypothermic conditions. Isoflurane 2% was found to induce apoptosis in this experimental paradigm.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 358–364. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c04e

At subanesthetic concentrations isoflurane and sevoflurane produce developmental effects in neonatal rats acting via similar mechanisms that may involve an increase in neuronal activity. At the same time, substantial differences in the effects of the two drugs suggest differences in the mechanisms mediating their actions and in their safety profile for neonatal anesthesia.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 365–378. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829419d3

Allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion of older erythrocytes causes pulmonary dysfunction that is characterized by marked neutrophil/macrophage infiltration. Moreover, transfusion interacted with cardiopulmonary bypass to increase lung injury

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Critical Care Medicine

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 379–388. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829b3804

ICI 174,864 with or without low volumes of Ringer’s lactate, dose-dependently increased blood pressure and prolonged short-term survival in rats subjected to uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. Survival was markedly higher in rats treated with ICI 174,864 than those with standard fluid resuscitation once bleeding was controlled.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 389–397. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829373fe

In 30 critically ill adult patients mechanically ventilated more than 10 days, extremity muscle weakness assessed by medical research council score was an independent predictor of swallowing dysfunction and symptomatic aspiration after extubation.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 398–411. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829419a6

This study suggests that high-frequency oscillatory ventilation at higher frequencies minimizes lung stress and tidal volume, resulting in less lung injury and reduced local lung inflammation.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 412–421. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c02e

Prolonged administration of pyridostigmine (25 mg·kg-1·day-1) leads to neuromuscular impairment, even if discontinued for 24 h. This impairment appears to be associated with, but is also independent of, acetylcholine receptor downregulation.

Pain Medicine

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 422–432. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bd9e2

The effectiveness of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of neuropathic pain depends on stimulation frequency and intensity. In a rat model of neuropathic pain, the intensity-dependent (20%, 40%, 80% of motor threshold) attenuation of pain by bipolar spinal cord stimulation at frequencies of 50 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz was studied on three consecutive days after L5 spinal nerve ligation. At a stimulation intensity that was 80% of the motor threshold, 1-kHz spinal cord stimulation reduced mechanical hypersensitivity more than 50-Hz stimulation did, with an earlier onset of analgesic effect (day 1 vs. day 2). The effect of 1-kHz stimulation was observed even at 40% of the motor threshold. The C-fiber component of wide dynamic range neuronal wind-up was reduced only at a 50-Hz stimulation frequency. Pain relief by kilohertz level and 50-Hz stimulation may involve different peripheral and spinal segmental mechanisms.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 433–442. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829996b6

These studies in rats suggest that although both volatile and injectable anesthetics reduce overall spinal nociceptive signaling, they unexpectedly do not alter peptide release from primary afferents; only fentanyl and the combination of isoflurane and nitrous oxide exert a presynaptic effect by blocking dorsal horn substance P release.

Education: Case Scenario

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 443–446. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829c2dc8

Education: Images in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 447. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31827335b9
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 448. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318273e3fe

Education: Anesthesia Literature Review

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 449–451. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829bd632

Education: Review Article

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 452–478. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182976014

Identification of all published questionnaires used to measure patient satisfaction with anesthesia, and the qualitative appraisal of the psychometric development and validation processes of these tools are discussed.

Education: Mind to Mind

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 479–481. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318291c344
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 482. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182860760
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 483. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829b36c2

Education: Case Report

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 484–487. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829c2f22

Correspondence

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 488. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182987cd2
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 488–489. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318298a3c5
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 489. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e318299f3fd
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 489–490. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829a2e51
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 490–491. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829b34e5
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 491–492. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31829b5851

Reviews of Educational Material

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 493. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828f4d80
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 494. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182976725

Anesthesiology Reflections from the Wood Library-Museum

Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 252. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37c1d
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 255. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37c2f
Anesthesiology August 2013, Vol. 119, 302. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a37c3f
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