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Table of Contents

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A13–A19. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445204.34138.a1

Editorial Board

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A15–A16. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445203.26514.99

This Month in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A1–A2. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445201.80772.0f

Science, Medicine, and the Anesthesiologist

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A19–A20. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445205.34138.e8

Infographics in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A21. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445206.11267.3b

Anesthesiology CME Program

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, A17. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445202.88396.90

Editorial

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 789. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000150
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 790–791. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000162
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 792–794. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000032
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 795–796. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000143
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 797–798. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000146
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 799–800. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000152
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 801–806. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000144
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 807–809. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000145

Perioperative Medicine: Clinical Science

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 810–818. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000159

In a review from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample of over 50 million hospitalizations for delivery from 1998 to 2011, cardiac arrest occurred in 8.5 per 100,000 hospitalizations, with no change in the rate over this time period. Nearly 60% of women survived to discharge, with an increase in survival over this time period.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 819–828. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000151

In a prospective study with 263 adult patients from 6 European centers undergoing surgery under general anesthesia, it was found that an index based on multimodal integration of electroencephalographic and standard monitoring parameters may more precisely assess depth of anesthesia than either standard monitoring or bispectral index monitoring alone.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 829–838. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000153

As judged by an independent study commission, anesthesia-related cardiac arrest occurred in 37 out of 160 cardiac arrests within a 24-h perioperative period.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 839–851. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000134

In this prospective, randomized, controlled trial including 683 patients with a preoperative hemoglobin level between 10 and 13 g/dl undergoing hip and/or knee arthroplasty, erythropoietin was found to significantly reduce the number of patients requiring the use of erythrocyte transfusion, but not the amount of erythrocytes transfused. Costs due to erythropoietin were €7300 per avoided transfusion. Autologous blood salvage devices were not effective in sparing erythrocyte transfusion.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 852–860. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000135

In this prospective randomized controlled trial including 1,759 patients with a preoperative hemoglobin level greater than 13 g/dl (and therefore ineligible for erythropoietin) undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty, autologous intra- and postoperative blood salvage devices were not effective as transfusion alternatives. The use of these devices did not reduce erythrocyte use and increased costs.

Perioperative Medicine: Basic Science

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 861–869. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000048

As demonstrated by several renal biomarkers, ultrafast cooling induced by total liquid ventilation protects kidneys in a severe model of cardiac arrest in rabbits.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 870–879. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000107

Using rat strains and ischemic injury, there was an inferred effect of mitochondrial genome and of mitochondrial function in determining the susceptibility to anesthetic preconditioning and ischemia–reperfusion injury in diabetes.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 880–889. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000149

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase derived nitric oxide is required for protection by therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation; but inhaled nitric oxide remains beneficial even during therapeutic hypothermia. These results suggest that inhaled nitric oxide may be beneficial after cardiopulmonary resuscitation during disease states characterized by impaired nitric oxide bioavailability.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 890–905. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000137

The authors demonstrated that in ketamine–xylazine anesthetized rats, odor presentation resulted in histologically distinguishable registration of sensory process, suggesting that general anesthesia causes disintegration of information processing but may preserve cellular communication.

Critical Care Medicine: Clinical Science

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 906–914. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000102

Lung and cardiac ultrasound were used to evaluate lung edema in parturients with severe preeclamspsia and lung edema was found in 5 of 20 women. The results from this preliminary study suggest hypotheses that need further investigation.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Critical Care Medicine: Basic Science

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 915–925. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000142

Intravenous lipid emulsions dose-dependently reversed bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity in rats. Using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic model, the direct cardiotonic effect of the intravenous lipid emulsion and its associated volume effect were found to be primarily responsible for the rapid recovery from bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, with contributions from the lipid sink.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 926–934. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000077

A therapeutic strategy based on alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate, along with hyperventilation and calcium administration increases pH and improves cardiovascular function.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 935–942. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000078

The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 inhibitor LR12 mitigated endotoxin-associated clinical and biological, with no obvious side effects in experimental primates.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 943–950. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000075

Anesthetized rats subjected to positive pressure or negative pressure ventilation with the breathing pattern occurring before mechanical ventilation did not experience ventilator-induced lung injury, unless marked chest distortion was produced, supporting the hypothesis that with normal lung expansion, there is a critical volume threshold to cause ventilator-induced lung injury.

Pain Medicine: Basic Science

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 951–961. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000148
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 962–975. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a66d2a

The results of these studies suggest that reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide are generated by spinal astrocytes and are involved in tolerance. The flavoprotein, d-amino acid oxidase, is an important astrocytic enzyme involved in this process.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 976–986. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000088

After incisional hind paw surgery in rats, administration of lidocaine and QX-314 followed by capsaicin initially attenuated mechanical hypersensitivity, but led to a delayed onset of mechanical hypersensitivity and neurotoxicity.

Education: Case Scenario

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 987–996. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000154

Education: Images in Anesthesiology

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 997. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000435861.14403.59

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 998. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e31828ce85c

Education: Original Investigations in Education

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 999–1008. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000138

Using a prestudy–poststudy design with randomized follow-up, this study demonstrated cricothyrotomy high-fidelity simulation increases and serves to maintain compliance of difficult airway management algorithm during “cannot intubate cannot ventilate” scenarios in addition to retention of the improved skill for 1 yr in the third-year anesthesia residents.

Education: Clinical Concepts and Commentary

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1009–1014. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000086

Cardiac arrest and its treatment options are frequently associated with significant derangements in coagulation. This review article highlights coagulopathies commonly encountered in cardiac arrest and during treatment with hypothermia, thrombolysis, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Education: Review Article

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1015–1031. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000140

Intraosseous vascular access has a defined role in the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. Literature addressing the use of intraosseous access in resuscitation is presented.

Supplemental Digital Content is available in the text.

Education: Mind to Mind

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1032–1033. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a9af76
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1034–1035. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182a9af8b
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1036–1037. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000033

Education: Case Reports

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1038–1041. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000147
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1042–1045. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000106
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1046–1049. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0b013e3182923eb9

Correspondence

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1050. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000155
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1051–1052. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000156
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1052–1053. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000157
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1053–1054. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000158
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1054–1056. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000128
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1056–1057. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000129
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1057. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000130
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1057–1058. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000131
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1058–1059. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000132

Reviews of Educational Material

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1060. https://doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000000139

Anesthesiology Reflections from the Wood Library-Museum

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 806. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445207.18891.6f
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 925. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445208.57009.bc
Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1031. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445209.57009.f5

Erratum

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1061. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445214.31459.1c

Announcements

Anesthesiology April 2014, Vol. 120, 1062. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.anes.0000445213.49385.63
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