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Manuscript Preparation

All manuscripts should be submitted via the journal’s online submission and review system; do not submit a manuscript via e-mail. Make sure your submission is complete and correct before completing the steps to submit it to the journal office. Manuscripts that do not satisfy minimum submission requirements will be returned to authors to correct. You will have an opportunity to review the constructed PDF file before approving the submission. Review this document carefully; after it is sent to the editors and reviewers, no changes can be made until an editorial decision is reached.

All submissions require a Title Page. Manuscripts must be double-spaced. Fonts should be 10 point or larger. All four margins should be at least 2.5 cm (1 in). If a manuscript is formatted for A4 paper, leave at least a 5 cm (2 in) margin at the bottom of the page. Number pages consecutively, preferably the upper right corners.

At first submission, manuscripts may be submitted as single Word document files, including title page, references, figure legends, figures, and tables. All manuscript components need to be included to allow for evaluation of your manuscript. If the editors request a revision, however, source files of the manuscript, figures, and tables will be required as well as other submission and publication elements.

General Arrangement, All Submissions

ALL articles should be arranged in the following order.

  • Cover letter (optional)
  • Manuscript, as a single file in word processing format (eg, .doc), consisting of Title Page, Abstract (if required for the article type; see relevant section), Body Text, References, Figure Legends, if any (in numerical order, on the same page); be sure to number all pages of the manuscript file
  • Tables (each Table should be a separate file in word processing file format, eg, .doc)
  • Appendices (each Appendix should be a separate word processing file format, eg, .doc)
  • Figure Legends (placed consecutively, in numerical order, all on the same page)
  • Figures (each Figure should be a separate file in figure file format)
  • Other submission elements (Supplemental Digital Content, etc.)

  • Title Page
  • Abbreviations
  • Abstract
  • Body Text
  • References
  • Tables
  • Appendices
  • Figure legends
  • Figures
  • Manuscripts In Press
  • Supplemental Digital Content
  • Claims of Primacy
  • Units of Measurement
  • Drug Names and Equipment
  • Data Reporting and Statistics
  • Patient Identification
  • Sources of Compounds
  • Permissions
  • Language Editing

  • Title Page
    All submissions require a Title Page with the following information on the first page(s) of the manuscript file
    1. Article Title: (do not use abbreviations in the title);
    2. Author Information: First name, middle initial, and last name of each author, with their highest academic degree(s) (M.D., Ph.D., etc.), and institutional affiliations; make sure the names of and the order of authors as they appear on the Title Page and entered in the system match exactly
    3. Corresponding Author: Name, mailing address, phone number, and e-mail address of the corresponding author; only one corresponding author may be designated for the entirety of the review and publication process; see Authorship) ;
    4. Clinical trial number and registry URL, if applicable;
    5. Prior Presentations: Note any presentation/s of the work at conferences for meetings; include name, exact date, location;
    6. Acknowledgments: List individuals or organizations to be acknowledged, if any. Provide complete name, degrees, academic rank, department, institutional affiliation, city, state, country, and a brief description of their contribution;
    7. Word and Element Counts: Number of words in the Abstract, in the Introduction, and in the Discussion section;, number of Figures; number of Tables; number of Appendices, if any; and number of Supplementary Digital Files, if any. Make sure all intended elements are submitted;
    8. Abbreviated Title (Running Head): State the essence of the article (50 characters maximum) for all article types except Images in Anesthesiology, Letters to the Editor, and Mind to Mind;
    9. Summary Statement: Brief statement (35 words maximum) to be printed in the Table of Contents for Review Article, Clinical Focus Review, and Special Article submissions;
    10. Funding Statement: Disclosure of all financial support for the work, including departmental or institutional funding/support. Comments such as "No Funding Received" are not acceptable. If only institutional/hospital/departmental funds were used, add the following statement: “Support was provided solely from institutional and/or departmental sources.” Be sure to specify funding from any of the following organizations: National Institutes of Health (NIH), Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) (see section on Compliance with NIH and Other Research Funding Agency Accessibility Requirements). Provide both the name and location of each funding agency/source.
    11.Conflicts of Interest: Authors must disclose all financial and non-financial relationships and activities within 36 months of manuscript submission, in accordance with International Committee of Medical Journal Editors “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals.”  If no competing interests, please add the following statement: “The authors declare no competing interests.” Refer also to the Conflicts of Interest and Sponsorship section of the Instructions for Authors.
    If any of these elements are not applicable to your submission, write "not applicable" after the number and topic; for example, "5. Prior Presentations: Not applicable."
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  • Abbreviations Please do not use any nonstandard abbreviations. This includes in the title, abstract, text, figures, and tables. Refer to the List of Standard Abbreviations.
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  • Abstract Original Investigations (Perioperative Medicine, Critical Care Medicine, Pain Medicine, and Education) require a structured abstract. It should be limited to 300 words. The structured abstract should contain four labeled paragraphs: Background, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.  The Abstract may be the only part of an article that is read, and must stand alone and effectively convey the key elements within an article. Please ensure that the Abstract communicates the research context, purpose and a hypothesis; the key methods, the most important findings (including the primary outcome, at minimum) described using numerical results (and statistical significance(, and clear conclusions which are supported by those results. An Abstract with narrative results and p values is not acceptable. Please ensure that any data in the Abstract are also in the main Results. In order to enhance comprehension, the use of nonstandard abbreviations or acronyms in the Abstract is not allowed. Refer to the List of Standard Abbreviations.

    Review Articles and Special Articles require an unstructured, one- or two-paragraph summary of the key points of the article of 150 words or fewer.

    Make sure the text of the Abstract in the manuscript file and in the system match exactly.
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  • Body Text
    1. Introduction (new page, 500-word limit;
    2. Materials and Methods (new page): A subsection entitled "Statistical Analysis" should appear at the end of the Materials and Methods section when appropriate (for comments re. Statistics). Include, as relevant, statements about informed consent, animal care, IRB approval, and/or clinical trial registration;
    3. Results (new page);
    4. Discussion (new page, 1,500-word limit): The discussion should focus on the findings in the current work.
    LENGTH: The Introduction and Discussion sections should not exceed 2,000 words combined. It is recommended that the Introduction be no longer than 500 words and the Discussion section no more than 1,500 words. Manuscripts that do not meet these word limits may be sent back to the authors.
    PAGE NUMBERING: Number all pages in the manuscript file.
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  • References Number references (as superscripts) in the sequence they appear in the text. Use abbreviated titles of the medical journals as they appear in Index Medicus. Include only references accessible to all readers. Do not include articles published without peer review or material appearing in programs of meetings or in organizational publications. Sites on the World Wide Web (URLs) may be used as references, provided the citation includes the last accessed date. Abstracts are acceptable as references only if published within the previous 3 years. Manuscripts in preparation or submitted for publication are never acceptable as references. If you cite accepted manuscripts "In Press" as references, please provide one electronic copy (e.g., Word, PDF) when you submit the new manuscript and mark them as "In Press, Reference # ___."
    Supply all authors' names for each reference; do not use "et al." Please confirm the accuracy of your references by comparison with original sources, not with someone else's reference lists, and examine your citations for typographical errors. Supply complete publication information for all references.
    Anesthesiology style is that references in legends to tables and figures be cited in the order in which they occur (as if they were cited in the text). This includes references that appear only in a table or figure legend and not in the text. Because it is recognized that authors may use software to format references, and to ensure that references are cited in the proper order, references cited in a table or figure legend should also be cited in the text at the first (but not necessarily subsequent) callout to that figure or table; a reference should not be cited only in a table or figure legend. If references are cited only in a table or figure legend, this will require renumbering of references during composition of the manuscript and possibly delay publication.
    Use the following reference formats:
    1. Journal: Carli F, Mayo N, Klubien K, Schricker T, Trudel J, Belliveau P: Epidural analgesia enhances functional exercise capacity and health-related quality of life after colonic surgery: Results of a randomized trial. Anesthesiology 2002; 97:540-9
    2. Book: Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK: Clinical Anesthesia, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 23-4
    3. Chapter: Blitt C: Monitoring the anesthetized patient, Clinical Anesthesia, 3rd edition. Edited by Barash PG, Cullen BF, Stoelting RK. Philadelphia, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, pp 563-85
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  • Tables Number tables consecutively in order of appearance (Table 1, etc.). Make sure tables are cited/called-out in the text in the correct order. Each Table should be submitted as a separate file. Each table must have a title and include footnotes when appropriate. Make sure any symbols and abbreviations used in the tables are defined. Tables must be word processing document format (eg, .doc). Do not submit tables as image files.
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  • Appendices Upload each appendix as a separate file. Number each appendix. Each appendix must be cited within the text, in consecutive order.
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  • Figure Legends Supply a legend/caption for each figure, preferably on the last page of the manuscript file. For review purposes, figures and their accompanying legends can be included as a group at the end of the manuscript file. If a revision is requested, authors will be asked to supply figures as separate original source files with textual legends/captions grouped on a single page in the manuscript file.
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  • Figures Figures should be prepared according to the professional standards of this Journal in appropriate file format with sufficient resolution for publication. If a single figure contains more than one panel, each panel must be identified alphabetically (e.g., A, B, etc.) and should read left to right in presentation. The figures must be cited in the text in the same, consecutive numeric order. Each Figure should be submitted as a separate file, clearly labeled with the figure number (e.g., Figure1.tif, Figure2.eps, etc.).   Make sure that any special symbols used in a figure (e.g., asterisk, double asterisk) are explained in the legend/caption.

    Format: Acceptable graphics formats are .tif, .eps, .jpg, or .pdf.

    Resolution: Photographic or halftone figures should be saved at 300 ppi resolution, with image sizes no smaller than 4 x 6 inches, approximately 1200 to 1800 pixels wide. Line-art, graphs, charts, diagrams must be 1200 ppi, approximately 4800 pixels wide, minimum.

    If images are submitted with resolutions lower than these specifications, we may be unable to publish them, even if we accept the submission. Therefore, please make sure that the images submitted with your manuscript comply with these specifications.

    Additional detailed information about digital art for publication can be found at

    If a revision is requested, do not paste graphics into word processing documents; submit them as separate files in figure file format. NOTE: Before approving your submission, view the PDF that is created by the system to make sure images are easily legible for the editors and reviewers.
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  • Manuscripts "In Press" Please submit an electronic copy (Word, PDF) of any "In Press" manuscript that is cited in the reference list, labeled as "In Press, Reference # ___." (If a manuscript is not yet In Press, it must be removed from the reference list.)
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  • Supplemental Digital Content Authors may submit Supplemental Digital Content to enhance their article's text and to be considered for online-only posting. Supplemental Digital Content may include the following types of material: text documents, graphs, tables, figures, audio, and video.

    If a manuscript is accepted for publication, authors of Original Investigations, Comprehensive Reviews, and Clinical Focus Reviews can elect to have included in the online (only) version of their article a brief biographical sketch and photos of the first author (and if more than one author) the senior or corresponding author. These biographical sketches and photo files must be uploaded as supplemental digital content in Editorial Manager at the revision stage. The biographical sketch for each author has a limit of 100 words. The photo is limited to a headshot only. Only two authors will be shown. Submission of bio and photo at the revision stage is no guarantee of eventual manuscript acceptance. Manuscripts will not be held in production after acceptance in order for authors to upload bio and photos.

    Number and cite all Supplemental Digital Content consecutively in the text. In-manuscript citations (other than biographical sketches) should include the type of material submitted, should be clearly labeled as "Supplemental Digital Content," should include a sequential number, and should provide a brief description of the supplemental content. For example: “See table, Supplemental Digital Content 1, listing all medications used in this study.” Each Supplemental Digital Content file must be composed to stand alone. For example, tables and figures must include titles, legends, and/or footnotes, following journal style, so the viewer can fully understand the supplemental content on its own. Production will not make any edits to the supplemental files; they will be presented as submitted.

    For audio and video files, enter the author name, videographer, participants, length (minutes), and size (MB) of file in Editorial Manager. Authors should de-identify patients and remove patients’ names from Supplemental Digital Content,  obtain written consent from the patients or legal guardians, and submit written consent with the manuscript. Copyright for video or audio supplemental digital content will be required upon acceptance. For a list of acceptable file types and size limits, please review the publisher’s requirements for submitting Supplemental Digital Content.
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  • Claims of Primacy Do not make any ordinal/primacy claims, eg, "this is the first study"; "this is the only study"; "we are the first to demonstrate."
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  • Units of Measurement Use metric units. The units for pressures are mmHg or cmH2O. Diagonal slashes are acceptable for simple units, e.g., mg/kg; when more than two items are present, negative exponents should be used, i.e., ml · kg-1 · min-1 instead of ml/kg/min.
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  • Drug Names and Equipment Use generic names. If a brand name must be used, insert it in parentheses after the generic name. Provide manufacturer's name, city, state, and country. Be careful about the use of trademarked terms (e.g., ThrombelastographyTM, TEGTM, etc.).
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  • Data Reporting and Statistics Detailed statistical methodology must be reported.  Describe randomization procedures and the specific tests used to examine each part of the results; do not simply list a series of tests.  Care should be taken with respect to:  a) reporting of parametric vs. nonparametric data (median range (or percentiles) is preferred for nonparametric data); b) parametric vs. nonparametric statistical methods; c) corrections for multiple comparisons; d) false precision (summary statistics should not contain more significant digits or decimal places than the original data); and e) variance reporting (standard deviation or 95% confidence interval, rather than standard error of the mean).
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  • Patient Identification Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers. An individual (other than an author) must not be recognizable in photographs unless written consent of the patient or legal guardian has been obtained and is provided at the time of submission. Authors should obtain consent forms from the relevant institution(s).
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  • Sources of Compounds Sources of compounds, reagents, and equipment should be identified by name and affiliation. Refer to drugs by their generic or chemical name, without abbreviation. Use a code number only when a generic name is not yet available. The identity and structure of novel research compounds, chemicals, and biologics must be cited, or provided if not previously published. Report the source of cell lines, and, if known, their authentication and mycoplasma contamination status.
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  • Permissions Permission is needed to publish any figure, abstract, portion of text, or table that has been previously published or copyrighted. Written permission must be obtained from the copyright holder. Authors are responsible for obtaining and uploading any needed permissions from the copyright holder upon submission of their manuscript and for providing proper attribution in the text of the manuscript. The following link may also be helpful: Rights and- Permissions
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  • Language Editing Services Articles submitted to the journal must be written with a solid basis of English language. If you need assistance in this area, listed below are a few companies that provide language and copyediting services. Use of an editorial service is at the discretion and cost of the authors and will not guarantee acceptance for publication in the journal. Please note: Appearance in the list of vendors does not represent endorsement by the publisher. Authors are encouraged to investigate each service on their own as well as seek out additional vendors offering similar services.

  • General Editorial, Ethical, and Legal Issues
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