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Pharmacodynamics: depth of anesthesia

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Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. October 2022: 137(4):446–458
Published: October 2022
... depression with a further decline in ventilation at an extrapolated end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration of 55 mmHg by 5 l/min. Modern medicine relies heavily on opioids for suppression of moderate to severe pain. Strong opioids are used during anesthesia to suppress autonomic responses and are given...
Articles
This article has a Visual Abstract
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. August 2022: 137(2):163–175
Published: August 2022
..., rhinorrhea, and vascular malformations in or near the nasal cavity that might influence nasal drug absorption. All subjects received 2 mg · kg −1 propofol, 0.3 µg · kg −1 sufentanil, and 0.2 mg · kg −1 cisatracurium besylate at anesthesia induction and had laryngeal mask airway placement...
Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. May 2022: 136(5):792–801
Published: May 2022
... effects are associated and possibly that analgesia is generated by ketamine-induced dissociation. The authors performed a post hoc analysis of previously published data to quantify the pharmacodynamic properties of ketamine-induced antinociception and psychedelic symptoms. The hypothesis was that ketamine...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. May 2022: 136(5):823–826
Published: May 2022
... Francisco, wherein Edmond “Ted” Eger II, M.D., and John Severinghaus, M.D., were investigating all things related to inhaled anesthetic pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics ( fig. 2 ). Ted Eger, at the time an assistant professor of anesthesia, had just published a paper with Giles Merkel, M.D., describing...
Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. May 2022: 136(5):763–778
Published: May 2022
.... Accepted for publication January 26, 2022. Published online first on March 29, 2022. Address correspondence to Dr. Pereira: Department of Anesthesia, St. Michael’s Hospital, 30 Bond St., Toronto Ontario, M5B 1W8, Canada. pereira.sm@gmail.com . A nesthesiology ’s articles are made freely accessible...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. April 2022: 136(4):588–593
Published: April 2022
... individuals progressively assembled a truly international group of clinicians and scientists to study regional anesthesia in depth. From the 1940s into the 1960s, their publications were mainly oriented toward the clinical performance and management of regional anesthesia and its complications. Our paper...
Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. February 2022: 136(2):279–292
Published: February 2022
... Bocxlaer JFP , Struys MMRF , Colin PJ : Pharmacodynamic interaction of remifentanil and dexmedetomidine on depth of sedation and tolerance of laryngoscopy. A nesthesiology . 2019 ; 131 : 1004 – 17 10. Hannivoort LN , Eleveld DJ , Proost JH , Reyntjens KM...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. February 2022: 136(2):345–361
Published: February 2022
..., and may improve postoperative respiratory outcomes. Several international anesthesia societies have recommended that quantitative monitoring be performed whenever a neuromuscular blocking agent is administered. Therefore, a comprehensive review of the literature was performed to determine the potential...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. October 2021: 135(4):558–561
Published: October 2021
... or more twitches when there are in fact no twitches could result in unrecognized residual neuromuscular blockade. A monitor that reports the absence of any twitches when in fact there are one or more twitches could lead the anesthesia provider to overestimate the depth of paralysis. The ideal clinical...
Articles
This article has a Visual Abstract
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. October 2021: 135(4):649–672
Published: October 2021
... with provisions of the Animal Welfare Act, the Public Health Service Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and Veterans Affairs policy. Experiments were carried out on adult (3 to 4 kg), pathogen-free, New Zealand White rabbits of either sex. Anesthesia was induced with 5 vol% sevoflurane via...
Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. August 2021: 135(2):258–272
Published: August 2021
... individualized hemodynamic protocol. BIS level is measured using the BIS depth of anesthesia monitor (Medtronic, France). MAP, mean arterial pressure. Fig. A2. Computer-assisted set-up in the operating room at Bicêtre Hospital, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. MAP, mean arterial pressure. Fig. A3...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. January 2021: 134(1):35–51
Published: January 2021
...., F.R.C.A. Background γ-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A ) receptor agonists are known to cause involuntary muscle movements. The mechanism of these movements is not known, and its relationship to depth of anesthesia monitoring is unclear. We have explored the effect of involuntary muscle movement...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. January 2021: 134(1):88–102
Published: January 2021
... such as bupivacaine have cardio- and neurotoxic effects, and these effects are primarily dependent on the D-enantiomer. 5 , 9 However, among voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, the L-enantiomers often have favorable biologic properties. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of L-enantiomers...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. December 2020: 133(6):1283–1305
Published: December 2020
... cause rebleeding because of an increase in the aneurysmal transmural pressure ( fig. 1 ). Standard measures to prevent hemodynamic responses should be used. These include increasing the depth of anesthesia, use of antinociceptive strategies ( e.g. , boluses of fentanyl, remifentanil) and short-acting...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. August 2020: 133(2):304–317
Published: August 2020
.... Induction of general anesthesia is often associated with a reduction in the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure attributable to a decrease in cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Phenylephrine, a pure α-adrenergic agonist, and ephedrine, an indirectly...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. July 2020: 133(1):133–144
Published: July 2020
... resolution. Multineuron recording was performed in Caenorhabditis elegans to measure neuronal activity at varying depths of anesthesia. The authors hypothesized that anesthesia is characterized by dyssynchrony between neurons resulting in a collapse of organized system states. Methods Using light-sheet...
Articles
This article has a Visual Abstract
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. April 2020: 132(4):652–666
Published: April 2020
...) pharmacodynamics of remimazolam infusion. Methods Twenty healthy male volunteers received remimazolam as continuous IV infusion of 5 mg/min for 5 min, 3 mg/min for the next 15 min, and 1 mg/min for further 15 min. Continuous EEG monitoring was performed by a neurophysiologic system with electrodes placed at F3, F4...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. May 2020: 132(5):1003–1016
Published: May 2020
... patients expressed higher BIS and state entropy values, projecting a “more awake” EEG by means of the indices. 65 These findings, and our own, imply that future EEG-based “depth of anesthesia” monitoring systems should account for patient age or use parameters not affected by age. In our data limited...
Articles
Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. April 2020: 132(4):636–651
Published: April 2020
...Jürgen Schüttler, M.D.; Andreas Eisenried, M.D., M.Sc.; Marco Lerch, M.D.; Jörg Fechner, M.D.; Christian Jeleazcov, M.D., M.Sc.; Harald Ihmsen, Ph.D. Background Remimazolam (CNS 7056) is a new ultra–short-acting benzodiazepine for intravenous sedation and anesthesia. Its pharmacokinetics...
Articles
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Publication: Anesthesiology
Anesthesiology. December 2019: 131(6):1223–1238
Published: December 2019
..., electroencephalographic-derived index that is considered by some to be a drug-independent representation of the depth of sedation and anesthesia What This Article Tells Us That Is New A four-period randomized sequence crossover study determined the concentration–effect relationships for both propofol and sevoflurane...