According to a recent small study, preoperative administration of nasal dexmedetomidine, compared to buccal administration, will MOST likely change which of the following at parental separation?

Alpha-2 agonists such as clonidine and dexmedetomidine have been effectively utilized as anxiolytic agents in children. A recent study compared the administration of nasal and buccal dexmedetomidine for use as a premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Dexmedetomidine is not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for either of these routes of administration. The study consisted of a prospective, randomized, double-blinded design. The study participants (n = 62) were two to six years of age and classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II who were scheduled for elective surgery. The surgical procedures included in this study were circumcision, inguinal hernia repair, and tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy. The children were assigned to one of the following groups:

Each group also received...

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