In the past 20 years, the global disease burden has significantly shifted from communicable to non-communicable disease. Practically, this translates to a higher percentage of death and disability from cardiovascular disease, trauma, cancer, obesity and diabetes. The transition away from HIV, TB and malaria has also increased the necessity for safe anesthesia and surgery to treat these emerging diseases in the countries of greatest need for both: low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Trauma is a disease and ranks as the leading cause of global disability and death. Millions of injuries occur around the world, and more than 1.24 million deaths result annually. The majority of trauma-related deaths (91 percent) occurs in the poorest countries and impacts the healthiest population, those aged 15-29 years. Unfortunately, it is in these same LMICs where emergency surgery is most often unavailable, largely...

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