Since 2002, the world has experienced the devastating effects of several emerging infectious diseases (SARS-CoV 2002, H5N1 2004, H1N1 2009, MERS 2012, Ebola 2014). Factors that have contributed to these new human diseases and their spread are: an ever-increasing world population, human incursion into areas harboring the natural hosts (reservoirs) of these diseases, globalization (travel, trade), climatic change and insufficient public health resources to provide an effective global public health infrastructure.1,2  When and what diseases we will encounter in the future cannot be predicted. But adherence to the basics of infection control and occupational health safety can effectively reduce the risks.

There are three recognized modes of transmission: contact, droplet and airborne. The personal protective equipment (PPE) necessary to avoid exposure varies by the mode of transmission (transmission-based precautions). Standard precautions should be used with...

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