The recent history of organ transplantation is one of progression and expansion. Developments in surgery and immunosuppression have resulted in procedures that not long ago were considered high risk and almost experimental to become established therapies for end-stage organ dysfunction. With the improvement in safety and outcomes has come an increase in the number of transplants performed. In 2013, there were 28,954 transplants carried out in the United States. Kidney is the most frequent (16,895), followed by liver (6,455), then heart (2,531) (Figure 1). Outcomes have improved markedly; the reported five-year survival post-transplant is now approximately 85 percent for kidney, 70 percent for liver and 70 percent for heart. For those organs where no replacement therapy is available, this represents an extended lifespan and quality of life for a great many individuals; for kidney transplants, the post-transplant...

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