The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that about 5.1 million people in the United States experience heart failure, and heart failure remains a leading cause of death, with one in nine deaths in 2009 attributed to the diagnosis. Furthermore, 50 percent of people diagnosed with heart failure are dead within five years of diagnosis. Financially, the ramifications of heart failure remain steep, with an estimated $32 billion each year spent in health care services and medications to treat heart failure, and missed days of work due to the condition.

In 2001, the pivotal Randomized Evaluation of Mechanical Assistance for the Treatment of Congestive Heart Failure (REMATCH) trial demonstrated the superiority of VAD therapy with ventricular assist devices (VADs) when compared with medical therapy for heart failure. Initially, VADs were used as a therapy...

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