The events of 2015 have created a pivotal year for global surgery and anesthesia. Years and even decades of work are behind the successes of this year, but three recent landmark events have changed the future of safe anesthesia and surgery in low- and middle-income countries. The World Bank publication Essential Surgery in Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 3rd Edition, the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and World Health Organization resolution A68/15 are game changing for access to surgery and safe anesthesia in countries that have suffered from neglected surgical systems for decades.

Essential Surgery, published in March 2015, and available online at no cost www.dcp-3.org, established a baseline of cost-effectiveness for basic surgical and obstetric procedures and anesthesia for all countries. This information is essential to effectively refuting the argument that “surgery...

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