An inguinal hernia procedure for a healthy 4-month-old patient is running behind schedule. The infant’s last intake of breast milk and clear liquids was eight and four hours ago, respectively. There is no certainty of when the procedure will start, as the surgeon had to squeeze in an urgent case. To reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged fasting, you want to allow a feeding of clear liquids, but don’t want to risk violating the two-hour fasting criteria for clear liquids when the surgery can finally proceed. According to a recent retrospective European study in which pediatric patients were allowed clear liquids up until the scheduled procedure, which of the following statements is most likely true?

In 1946, Dr. Curtis Mendelson published a landmark paper on the effects of gastric contents when aspirated into the lungs during obstetric anesthesia. His...

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