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Despite continued improvements in pain treatment, moderate to severe postoperative pain remains the focus of ongoing research in medicine. A retrospective study in 2003 by Apfelbaum et al. indicated that 35 percent of patients experienced severe postoperative pain at discharge and 22 percent reported severe pain two weeks post-discharge. A 2015 study by Buvanendran et al. found that 12 percent of surgical patients reported severe pain at discharge, with 13 percent reporting severe pain after two weeks. Although these numbers point to an encouraging improve-ment, the incidence of postsurgical pain remains unacceptably high. Postsurgical pain leads to overall decreased...

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