Enhancing patient safety has been a core principle for anesthesiologists, and ASA is recognized as a national leader in patient safety. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (now recognized as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine) published a report titled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.1 The intent of the report was to emphasize “that ‘error’ that resulted in patient harm was not a property of health professionals’ competence, good intentions or hard work…” but rather was “a property of a system of care.” In that report, the medical specialty of anesthesiology was the only specialty of medicine specifically cited as an exemplar of progress in patient safety. “Anesthesia is an area in which impressive improvements in safety have been made…. The gains in anesthesia are very impressive and were accomplished through a...

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