Reducing the distance between the Y-piece of the anesthesia circle system and which of the following is most likely to decrease dead space?

During ventilation, dead space is the volume of gas that is in the airway system but not exchanged within the alveoli. In the circle systems of modern anesthetic machines, the point where fresh gas stops flowing is at the Y-piece (Figure 1).

Because gas continually flows through the circle system, moving the valves or carbon dioxide absorbent canister or changing the length of tubing between them will not change the dead space. The distance from the carina to the ventilated alveoli also cannot be reduced. Therefore, dead space may only be decreased by reducing the volume of the airway between the Y-piece and the carina. This may be accomplished by:

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