A recent study used gastric ultrasound to assess gastric emptying times for three liquids (apple juice, 2 percent milk and Ensure® Clear, an optically clear, high-protein, high-carbohydrate drink) in healthy pediatric volunteers. Safe time was defined as the time at which the probability of the stomach returning to empty baseline exceeded 95 percent. Based on the study results, safe time was reached fastest for which of the liquids?

Preoperative fasting guidelines for elective surgery are designed to optimize patient safety by minimizing the risk of aspiration while also attempting to minimize patient discomfort associated with fasting for prolonged periods of time. Although the risk of aspiration under anesthesia is low, the complications resulting from aspiration can be devastating. The current fasting guidelines are considered standard of care; however, there is a notable gray area regarding various types of...

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