Numerous factors impact hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), many of them being care processes that fall under the responsibility of anesthesiologists as perioperative physicians. Some areas in which anesthesiologists can decrease patients’ infection risks include, but are not limited to, appropriate selection and timely administration of antibiotics, normothermia, glycemic control and hand washing. Infection risks for patients include many HAIs such as lung infection, urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI) and central line-associated blood stream infection. Anesthesiologists were early pioneers of patient safety and quality improvement to enhance care. Anesthesiologist leadership in multidisciplinary initiatives to improve quality and patient safety continues to this day and remains critically important for delivering the best care to patients.

Two particular areas in which anesthesiologists play critical roles in patient care are the implementation of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and fast-track surgery...

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