The severity of restrictive pulmonary disease is BEST classified by which of the following measurements of pulmonary function?

Patients with restrictive lung disease have a high risk for perioperative morbidity and mortality. This can be due to an increase in alveolar or interstitial fluid, as well as to connective tissue disorders or to drugs or environmental factors that cause fibrosis. In addition, external conditions can alter the chest wall or diaphragmatic mechanics. Some of the causes of restrictive disease are classified in the Table.

A hallmark of restrictive lung disease is a reduction in all lung volumes. Because forced expiratory volume at one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) are both reduced, the FEV1:FVC ratio remains relatively normal. There is a reduction in pulmonary compliance and functional residual capacity, with relatively preserved expiratory flow rates. A predominant feature of restrictive lung disease, however, is a...

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