The prevalence of chronic pain eclipses many other health problems, affects 100 million Americans, and costs $600 billion annually in direct and indirect costs (asamonitor.pub/3nz2V2R). It is difficult to treat because it is a heterogenous entity that results from a complex interplay of biological, psychological, social, and emotional factors, and no single or simple treatment or solution exists. Multi-modal approaches synergistically targeting each of these areas have the highest success rates of reducing pain and improving function. While not a cure-all, many individual interventions can help ameliorate specific pain generators as part of a broader, multi-modal approach. We review here four relatively new interventions for patients with chronic pain that were not available even a few years ago.

Neuromodulation of peripheral nerves has reinvigorated the field of pain medicine. In the past, PNS implantation required a surgical...

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