Your hospital system is interested in developing a perioperative fluid administration protocol for adults undergoing noncardiac surgery. According to a recent large study, which of the following is MOST likely true regarding postoperative complications?

Postoperative complications have major negative effects on overall patient outcomes and costs. Perioperative fluid management is a potentially modifiable factor for reducing postoperative complications, as both hypervolemia and hypovolemia may have adverse effects. Many studies have examined the association between perioperative fluid volumes and patient outcomes, but most have been limited in scope, focusing on specific patient populations, organ systems, or single institutions.

The authors of a recent retrospective study hypothesized that patients receiving high or low volumes of fluid may experience worse clinical outcomes than patients receiving moderate fluid volumes in the perioperative period. The study included 35,736 adults who underwent noncardiac surgery at 119 hospitals from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2017. Patients...

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