Innovations in imaging, technological advancements in micro-instrumentation, changing patient expectations and demands, and a general shift toward minimizing hospital stay are driving and expanding interventional radiology (IR) procedural growth as a more cost-effective acute care practice with positive impact on patient outcomes. Nationally, non-OR anesthesia (NORA) practice is the fastest-growing practice in anesthesiology in both the day surgery and in-hospital acute care setting (Local Reg Anesth 2020;13:1-9).

The remote location of a NORA procedure suite presents the anesthesiologist with specific challenges, including:

Nevertheless, ASA standards and practice parameters for NORA should be adhered to in every clinical encounter in this practice setting (asamonitor.pub/3mRrUOX). Three rapidly growing IR procedures are briefly discussed below that can markedly improve patient outcomes; they do, however, require special anesthetic considerations.

Transbronchial cryotherapy was first used as a palliative treatment in bronchial obstruction in 1996. Over the years, however, increasing safety and...

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