Anesthesiology as a specialty has been acknowledged for advancing quality of care, as documented by the 1999 Institute of Medicine publication To Err is Human.1 While the publication brought medical errors and preventable complications and deaths to the attention of providers and the public, identification of problems associated with perioperative care and approaches to address them have been of concern to anesthesiologists for decades. The landmark study by Beecher and Todd in 1954 found that anesthesia-related mortality was 64 deaths per 100,000 procedures; this propelled the specialty to improve training and guidelines for practice.1 Based on this background, anesthesiologists have long been leaders and innovators in patient safety, exemplified by the creation of ASA monitoring standards in 1986 and the establishment of the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation (APSF) in 1985, the first organization to focus solely on patient safety in a medical specialty; its vision is “that...

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