A 25-year-old man presents for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He suffers from chronic low back pain and is using oxycodone, diazepam, and cannabis for pain management. According to a recent study, which of the following six-month outcomes is MOST likely in this patient compared with a similar patient who does not use cannabis?

Cannabis use has been increasing in the United States, particularly in states where marijuana has been legalized both for medical and recreational use. Anesthesiologists and surgeons are faced with caring for these patients without strong data to guide discussion of perioperative outcomes and risks.

The authors of a recent longitudinal study examined perioperative outcomes in patients using cannabis. The study was conducted in Michigan following the medical legalization of marijuana in 2008 but prior to recreational legalization in 2018. Questionnaires were distributed to patients 18 years or older undergoing elective surgery. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire on...

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