Minimally invasive approaches, facilitated with advanced technology such as augmented reality, mixed reality, and robotics, as well as artificial intelligence (AI), novel imaging, innovative navigation systems, and 3D printing, will extend the capabilities of surgeons and proceduralists. Next-generation surgical robotics will be more versatile, portable, and cheaper, as well as more autonomous. A novel robot that allows insertion of two robotic arms and a camera through a 1.5 cm incision is being evaluated. Advanced visualization capabilities and AI-supported ultra-precise 3D images will replace large, heavy microscopes with wearable mixed-reality devices (i.e., devices that merge augmented reality and virtual reality). Non-robotics for diagnosis and drug delivery may become a reality. These innovative technological platforms should improve procedural precision, safety, and efficiency, as well as lead to development of innovative procedures. Furthermore, these technological advances should reduce variability in surgical performance, decrease surgical stress response, reduce periprocedure complications, and allow rapid recovery....

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