Surgical site infections (SSIs) occur in 2%-5% of patients and are a costly nosocomial occurrence. The rate varies and is dependent upon the type of wound. Risk factors for SSI include immunodeficiency, chronic steroid use, diabetes mellitus, extremes of age, and inpatient status (Anesthesiology 2020;132:586-97). The timely administration of prophylactic antibiotic/s in appropriate dose/s is a goal of the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) (asamonitor.pub/3NVjToB). This initiative is used as a quality measure for perioperative care in hospitals and health systems (asamonitor.pub/3NVjToB) and to ensure a minimum inhibitory antimicrobial concentration at the surgical site to treat existing skin flora, namely streptococci, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2008;29:996-1011). Clean-contaminated wounds may also be infected with gram-negative rods and enterococci. Other pathogens may be involved depending on the body cavity/viscus being operated on, adjacent mucosa, immune competence, and pathogens in...

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