Which of the following complications is MOST likely to be associated with vasa previa?

Vasa previa (Figure) is a velamentous insertion of the fetal vessels overlying the cervical os ahead of the fetal presenting part. This leaves the fetal vessels unprotected by the placenta or umbilical cord and at risk of being compressed by the fetal presenting part or disrupted during rupture of the fetal membranes. There is a high risk of fetal mortality due to exsanguination, as the blood volume of the term fetus is only 80 to 100 mL/kg. Immediate cesarean delivery is required, with the largest focus being on expedient delivery of the fetus and subsequent volume resuscitation of the fetus with colloid, balanced salt solutions, or blood transfusion.

The two main causes of vasa previa are velamentous insertions (where the cord inserts directly into the membranes, leaving unprotected vessels running to the placenta) and...

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