According to the STOP-Bang screening tool, which of the following variables is MOST likely a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common type of sleep-disordered breathing. Males are more frequently affected (24% of males vs. 9% of females). OSA is characterized by loud snoring, observed periods of apnea, excessive daytime sleepiness, and abrupt awakenings accompanied by gasping or choking. It may also be associated with difficulty concentrating, irritability, and hypertension. OSA is associated with recurrent upper airway collapse during sleep that leads to reduced or complete cessation of airflow despite ongoing respiratory efforts.

Patients with OSA present a unique set of intraoperative concerns, including an elevated risk of perioperative airway obstruction, atelectasis, hypoxemia, pneumonia, cardiovascular complications, and prolonged hospitalizations. Patients with OSA also tend to be more sensitive to the respiratory depressant effects of opioids. Techniques to manage the airway, such as...

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