Health care disparities are prevalent, multifaceted, and have been shown to exist in all medical and surgical specialties, including anesthesiology (Anesth Analg 2018;126:588-99; Anesthesiology 2023;138:587-601). The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) defines disparities as a difference or gap that exists between two groups that is statistically significant, greater than 10%, and indicates poor quality care for the minority group. Disparities relate to the principle of justice and to the balance between the personal needs of the patient and societal resources, including the fair distribution of goods (that are in short supply) in society, and the role of entitlements (Beauchamp et al.). In March 2002, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) published, “Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care,” which documented a consistent body of research underlying significant variation in the rates of medical procedures by race. This report highlighted the fact that racial...

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