Table 3. Average Percent Time Spent on Each Task Category and Mean Differences between Observation Conditions

* There were no significant differences for any of the comparisons.

† Unperformed tasks have been excluded.

‡ Average (± standard error of the mean) across all four observations (OB1-OR, OB1-V1, OB2-V1, OB2-V2).

§ Average difference (± standard error of the mean) in one observer's estimates of the percent of time spent on each task category on two independent observations from video (OB2-V1 *vs.* OB2-V2). Only 19 cases were available for study.

∥ Average difference (± standard error of the mean) of another observer's estimates of the percent of time spent on each task category on two observations; one done in real time (OR) and one from video (OB1-OR *vs.* OB1-V1). All 20 cases were used in this comparison.

# Average difference (± standard error of the mean) in estimates of the percent of time spent on each task category by the two different observers (OB1-V1 *vs.* OB2-V2). Only 19 cases were used in this comparison.

OR = operating room.